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France is considered a great power in global affairs, being one of the five permanent members of the United Nations Security Council with the power to veto and an official nuclear-weapon state. Modern France is still named today "Francia" in Italian and Spanish, "Frankreich" in German and "Frankrijk" in Dutch , all of which have more or less the same historical meaning. There are various theories as to the origin of the name Frank.
Following the precedents of Edward Gibbon and Jacob Grimm , the name of the Franks has been linked with the word frank in English, it has been suggested that the meaning of "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul , only Franks were free of taxation. Another theory is that it is derived from the Proto-Germanic word frankon, which translates as javelin or lance as the throwing axe of the Franks was known as a francisca. However, it has been determined that these weapons were named because of their use by the Franks, not the other way around; the oldest traces of human life in what is now France date from 1.
Over the ensuing millennia, Humans were confronted by a harsh and variable climate, marked by several glacial eras. Early hominids led a nomadic hunter-gatherer life. France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux.
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At the end of the last glacial period, the climate became milder. After strong demographic and agricultural development between the 4th and 3rd millennia, metallurgy appeared at the end of the 3rd millennium working gold and bronze, iron.
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France has numerous megalithic sites from the Neolithic period, including the exceptiona. Jacques de Compostella pilgrimage route; the church of St. Pierre, dating from the fifteenth century. The chapel de Reix, from the eighteenth century. A light industrial town, the largest in the department, with a big woodland and a little farming not far from the town centre, it is 45 miles northeast of Limoges at the junction of the D, D and the N roads.
The church of St. Pierre and St.
Paul , dating from the thirteenth century; the Hotel de Moneyroux. This building, of Gothic style, was constructed in the fifteenth century by Antoine Allard, it is now the headquarters of the General Council of the Creuse.
It can be visited during public holidays; the Presidial, dating from the seventeenth century. Built in eighteenth century, the building served as the residence of senators under Napoleon. Since , the Society of Archaeological and Natural Sciences of the Creuse, one of the oldest learned societies of France has been housed here, it brings together natural history works of art. The war memorial; the seventeenth-century chateau of Sainte Feyrer, built on the foundations of a castle from the Middle Ages , of which there are some remains. The building of the eighteenth century was constructed by the architect Brousseau, it has an elegant staircase and the oratory is classified as an historical monument.
Opened in , it is a noted site in the field of protection of this species. There are some huge natural monoliths, such as "la Pierre Grole" linked to local myths and legends and some old granite quarries, once used for cobblestones of the streets of Paris. As a result, the climate is mild for its latitude and relatively gloomy. Antoine Varillas , an historian, was born here in Marcel Jouhandeau , was born here.
Madeleine Chapelle, the wife and model of painter Dominique Ingres.
Georges Pludermacher , classical pianist Pierre Michon , spent his childhood here. Ajain Ajain is a commune in the Creuse department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in central France. During the French Revolution of , 16 villagers were killed attempting to seek the release of their friends, imprisoned for tax evasion; the church of St. Pierre, dating from the thirteenth century; the chapel of Notre-Dame. A stone commemorating the revolt of Communes of France The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic.
French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada , Gemeinden in Germany , comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain ; the United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger.
Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered; the communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France. Communes vary in size and area, from large sprawling cities with millions of inhabitants like Paris , to small hamlets with only a handful of inhabitants. Communes are based on pre-existing villages and facilitate local governance. All communes have names, but not all named geographic areas or groups of people residing together are communes, the difference residing in the lack of administrative powers.
Except for the municipal arrondissements of its largest cities, the communes are the lowest level of administrative division in France and are governed by elected officials with extensive autonomous powers to implement national policy. A commune is city, or other municipality. There is nothing intrinsically different between commune in French; the French word commune appeared in the 12th century, from Medieval Latin communia , for a large gathering of people sharing a common life.
As of January , there were 36, communes in France, 36, of them in metropolitan France and of them overseas; this is a higher total than that of any other European country, because French communes still reflect the division of France into villages or parishes at the time of the French Revolution. The whole territory of the French Republic is divided into communes. This is unlike some other countries, such as the United States, where unincorporated areas directly governed by a county or a higher authority can be found. The commune structure was abolished when Saint-Martin became an overseas collectivity on 22 February COM of Wallis and Futuna , which still is divided according to the three traditional chiefdoms.
The median area of metropolitan France's communes at the census was smaller, at The median area is a better measure of the area of a typical French commune. This median area is smaller than that of most European countries. In Italy, the median area of communes is 22 km2. They group into the same commune several villages or towns with sizeable distances among them. Again this is a small number, here France stands apart in Europe, with the lowest communes' median population of all the European countries; this small median population of French communes can be compared with Italy , where the median population of communes in was 2, inhabitants, Belgium , or Spain.
The median population given here should not hide the fact that there are pronounced differences in size between French communes. As mentioned in the introduction, a commune can be a city of 2 million inhabitants such as Paris, a town of 10, inhabitants, or just a hamlet of 10 inhabitants. What the median population tells us is that the vast majority of the French communes only have a few hundred inhabitants. In metropolitan France just over 50 percent of the 36, communes have fewer than inhabitants a.
Creuse Creuse is a department in central France named after the river Creuse. Creuse is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March , it was created from the former province of La Marche. Marche first appeared as a separate fief about the middle of the 10th century, when William III, Duke of Aquitaine , gave it to one of his vassals named Boso , who took the title of count. Several years in , La Marche passed into the hands of the House of Bourbon ; the family of Armagnac held it from to In La Marche became part of the domains of the French crown.
It was divided into Haute Marche and Basse Marche, the estates of the former continuing until the 17th century. From until the Revolution, the province was under the jurisdiction of the parlement of Paris. The achievement was crowned with the region's first telephone line, installed in order to permit instant communication between the generating station and the newly illuminated town.
It permeated by the Creuse and its tributaries; the river is dammed at several locations both for hydroelectricity generation. As is typical for an inland area of continental Europe , Creuse has cold winters with some snowfall into April, but hot summers. Rain falls throughout the year because of the high elevation; the topography is principally rolling hills intersected by steep valleys. The terrestrial ecology is cool temperate with a species mix common in the western UK: with oak, chestnut and Prunus species dominating the woodlands.
Pinguin , pp. Teil 2.
Archaeomineralogy (Natural Science in Archaeology)
Recklinghausen Verlag Aurel Bongers , pp. Schrift - Bild - Kommunikation. Redaktion: Hendrik Kuschel. Berlin - New York Walter de Gruyter , pp. Robert Bringhurst , Voices, languages and scripts around the world, in: John D. Berry ed. International type design in the age of Unicode.